Video Greetings from Monsignor Harry at ACBC 2019 in Rome

Monsignor Harry Entwistle speaks to us from Rome during the Australian Catholic Bishops Conference which is held every five years.

 

Musings January 2019 Edition 32

By the Reverend Monsignor Harry Entwistle,
Ordinary

January 2019

The Australian Catholic Bishops are well aware of the challenging times the Church is facing. In numerous countries the revelations of commissions and enquiries into abuse are scandalous and indefensible. Political factions are intent on destroying the Church and the dissemination of fake news is destructive of truth, individuals and institutions.

In this maelstrom the bishops have been given permission by Pope Francis to call a Plenary Council to be held in 2020 and 2021. The intention of this Council is to create an atmosphere in which the faithful of the Australian Church can reflect prayerfully on where God is leading our Church at this time and how we ought to implement his will.

Prayerful reflection must be central to this listening process otherwise it will be impossible to distinguish truth from opinion. In my own reflections on the current situation I am coming to
recognise that the confusion created by treating truth as relative is a key element, not only in why chaos exists, but in plotting the way out of it. As Cardinal Ratzinger said in 2005 before his election as Pope, “We are moving towards a dictatorship of relativism which does not recognise anything as certain and which has at its highest goal one’s own ego and one’s own desires.

The influence of relativism is quite marked in sections of the Church amongst the ordained and especially the laity.

Within the Church there are those who believe that God’s absolute truth about himself and human life has been revealed in and through Jesus Christ which is proclaimed through the teaching of the Church. This truth is encapsulated in the Creeds of the Church and our understanding of this truth develops through the guidance of the Holy Spirit who is the one who leads God’s people into its understanding. Those who hold this view consider Vatican II to be a continuing development of the Church’s understanding of God’s truth throughout the centuries which helps us to re-present the gospel to the world in our present time.

The Old Testament is a story of the fortunes and misfortunes of God’s people related to their obedience or otherwise of God’s revealed laws. When they kept the commandments they flourished and whenever a gap emerged between what they claimed to believe (orthodoxy) and how they lived their lives (orthopraxy), disasters such as the Exile came upon them.

Those who acknowledge truth as being absolute see a widening gap between what the Catholic Faith believes and how Catholics live their lives. They see the similarity between the luke-warmness of many Catholics today and Jesus’ attacks on the emptiness of the Jewish leaders and people during his earthly ministry, made visible in his cleansing of the Temple.

Those in the Church who take this view see the crisis as being one of faith and a failure of the leadership to hold, proclaim and practice the teachings of the Church.

In contrast, there are those who believe that God’s absolute truth about himself and humanity has not been revealed in and through Jesus Christ but will only be known at the end of all things. If this is so, then nothing is certain. There are varying ‘truths’ (your truth and my truth), that can be acknowledged in other faiths and in the secular world and so be embraced and tested.

Those who hold this view are more likely to view Vatican II as a ‘rupture’ from the teachings of the past centuries and be a new beginning in the life of the Church. Hence the ‘strait jackets’ of the past and restrictiveness of the Creeds, doctrine and some moral and ethical codes must be jettisoned and the Church be open to embrace the ‘truths’ of modern Western liberal society.

In the responses to the Plenary Council questions that the bishops have asked us to consider, it is already becoming clear from the submissions made so far, that they reflect the differing beliefs about revealed and unfolding truth that I have tried to describe.

Those who acknowledge truth as absolute, and this view is shared by numerous young adults, are looking to the Plenary Council for a call to return to faith in God and the observance of the teachings of the Catholic Faith. This mirrors the calls of the Old Testament prophets and John the Baptist as well as Jesus himself.

 

They are likely to acknowledge that it is not so much the culture of the Church that has caused the current crisis but that the Church’s culture has enable abusers to thrive and hide. This must be addressed through attitudinal and legislative change, but the primary change must be a return to faithfulness and strong leadership.

Those who view our knowledge of God’s truth as a ‘work in progress’ are more likely to lay the blame for the crisis on the culture of the Church itself. In consequence, they look favourably on solutions which constitute a break from the past and are aimed at ‘deconstructing’ the beliefs and practices of the Church which must be reflected in new structures and modus operandi. They regard the Christian story in a more symbolic rather than literal sense, rather like the stories of more ancient religions. They see the Church more as a corporate structure rather than the divinely instituted Body of Christ. Their vision of the Church’s mission is to present ideals to the world rather than truth, so to enable this to be effective, the Church structures must reflect secular society in promoting the increased governance of laity, inclusiveness and gender equality, and life ethics which are more in tune with Western secular thinking and corporate style accountability.

These demands have already been voiced by some groups that have submitted their views to the Plenary Council Committee.

Interestingly, it has been noticed that group and individual responses which are made after a time in prayerful reflection tend to be more God-centred than those responses emanating from a ‘meeting’ style gathering.

We in the Ordinariate must make our contribution to this reflective process and submissions must be sent to the Plenary Council Administration before Pentecost this year. We have a lived experience of the consequences of the Anglican Church’s path down the road of truth being an unfolding process rather than being absolute. We have experienced that Church being tossed here and there and carried about by every wind of doctrine in order to bolster its ‘relevance’ in the secular world. We know where it leads, and we must prophetically warn our fellow Catholics of the consequences of following that same path.

I urge you to hold Lenten reflections on the questions the bishops have given us. Look at the Plenary Council website, watch the videos and gather together to share your thoughts. It is vital that these discussions are set in a context of prayerful reflection and not simply in a ‘small group workshop’ context. Discussions set in the context of prayer, such as adoration, a quiet time or saying the Office together are more likely to be God focussed. After all, it is him we are endeavouring to serve.

May God guide you and bless you at this time.

In Christ,



Reverend Monsignor Harry Entwistle,
Ordinary.
The Personal Ordinariate of Our Lady of the Southern Cross (OLSC).

 

 

Musings July 2019 Edition 33

By the Reverend Monsignor Harry Entwistle,
Ordinary Emeritus

Musings 33 July 2019 

MUSINGS OF THE ORDINARY EMERITUS 

Dear Ordinariate Members and Supporters 

It is said that ‘Life is a journey, not a destination.’ That is true of our personal lives and it is true of the journey many of us began 7 years ago when Pope Benedict XVI responded to our requests to enter into full communion with him by erecting the Personal Ordinariate of Our Lady of the Southern Cross on the Feast of the Sacred Heart, 2012. 

For some Anglicans seeking unity, the gift of Pope Benedict was the destination they could not embrace, and so ‘walked away’ as some of Jesus’ disciples did after the feeding of the five thousand (Jn 6:66). Those of us who received the gift with joy have found the journey to be a testing one, but one we have undertaken in faith that the unity of all Christians is what Jesus prayed for on the night before his betrayal. 

“To get from where you are not,
You must go by a way wherein there is no ecstasy.
In order to arrive at what you do not know
You must go by a way which is the way of ignorance.
In order to possess what you do not possess
You must go by the way of dispossession.
(T.S.Eliot, East Coker)

T.S.Eliot

I think many of us can relate to these words of T.S.Eliot, and even on our journey, some who walked with us have left us, while many others have joined us. 

We have now arrived at an end point which is also a beginning. Endings open the door to beginnings and OLSC is preparing to welcome Msg Carl Reid as the new Ordinary and to travel the next stage of the journey. Our first leg of the journey has been one of laying the foundations, which unexpectedly has come to include Japan with a pro-community in the Philippines. 

The next phase is to build on these foundations in order to ensure that the unique gifts of the English Spiritual Tradition are able to be shared more widely within the Catholic Church. It would be foolish to suggest that this task will be easy, but under the leading of the Spirit and the commitment of all Ordinariate members and supporters to the task God has asked of us, we will not fail. 

Within the Catholic Church of Australia at this time, the bishops have posed the question to the faithful, “What is God asking of us at this time?’ This is not a question asking what the faithful think should be done to ‘fix up’ the Church and make it ‘relevant’ to modern liberal Western society. To attempt to do that is pursuing fool’s gold. 

The question is not one about how to enable the Church to survive in our age. It could only do that by ceasing to be Catholic. Nor is it one about finding strategies to revive the Church. Like the raising of Lazarus, revival is restoring someone or something to what it was before, and everyone has their own view about what this should be. 

The question is about what GOD wants, and what GOD has always wanted from the creation onwards, is to bring order out of chaos, which is nothing less than resurrection. 

God is not asking us in the Ordinariate to struggle on as best we can in the hope that we will grow and somehow survive. Neither is he asking us to revive some glorious era of Anglo-Catholicism within the Catholic Church. 

He is calling us to the new life of resurrection by finding a new place within the Australian Catholic Church at this time so that we can be faithful to our heritage while being committed to the mission of the Church and its evangelisation of the world. 

The road to resurrection is always via the Cross of suffering in which we find comfort and wholeness. 

“The dripping blood our only drink,
The bloody flesh our only food;
In spite of which we like to think
That we are sound, substantial flesh and blood –
Again, in spite of that, we call this Friday good.’”
 (T.S.Eliot, East Coker)

As I hand over the reins of leadership to Mgr Reid, I thank you for your kindness and support during my tenure as Ordinary and with you, welcome Mgr Carl and his wife Barbara to Australia and the Ordinariate of Our Lady of the Southern Cross. 

I invite all of you who can attend the celebrations of Mgr Reid’s installation to do so in order to offer a warm welcome to the Reids and the officials from the Vatican, the United States and the UK, as well as to those Australian Bishops who will be present. 

 

 

I look forward to seeing you there.

In Christ
Monsignor Harry
Ordinary Emeritus 



Reverend Monsignor Harry Entwistle, Ordinary Emeritus.
The Personal Ordinariate of Our Lady of the Southern Cross (OLSC).

 

 

Congratulations to our Seminarian Nigel McBain: Mass of Candidacy

We celebrated Nigel’s Mass of Candidacy on Saturday, 22nd September, 2018 at Saint Joseph’s Newtown.

L to R Fr Richard Waddell, Fr John Armstrong, Fr. Stephen Hill, Fr Gerard McKie, Seminarian Nigel McBain, Monsignor Harry Entwistle Deacon William Chow (Sydney), Fr Danny Meagher, Rector of the Seminary of the Good Shepherd (Sydney), Fr Sebastian Hew (Sydney), Fr Simon Kitimbo, Vice-Rector of the Seminary of the Good Shepherd (Sydney), Fr Gerard Kelly, President-Emeritus of Catholic Institute of Sydney (Sydney).

Seminarian Nigel McBain with his parents and sister

Seminarian Nigel McBain with his parents and Monsignor Harry Entwistle

 

L to R.Fr Richard Wadell, Fr Arthur Givney, First Year Director at the Seminary of the Good Shepherd. Fr John Armstrong, Fr Gerard McKie, Fr. Stephen Hill.

Procession led by Cong Hoang

 

Pope Francis appoints new head of Personal Ordinariate in Australia

In an Audience of February 7, 2019 given to the Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Cardinal Luis Ladaria, the Holy Father Pope Francis accepted the resignation of the pastoral governance of the Personal Ordinariate of Our Lady of the Southern Cross (Australia), presented by the Rev Monsignor Harry Entwistle, in conformity with canon 401 §1, CIC, and nominated Ordinary of the same Personal Ordinariate, Father Carl Reid, until now Dean of all of the Canadian parishes of the Personal Ordinariate of The Chair of St Peter (USA) and pastor of a community of the same Ordinariate in British Columbia, Canada.

Father Reid has accepted the nomination and the Apostolic Nuncio in Australia has been informed of the appointment.

Father Reid, born on December 14 1950, was baptized on January 14 1951 in the Anglican Church of Canada.

He earned a bachelor’s Degree in Geological Engineering from Queen’s University in Kingston, Ontario in 1973. He earned a Master of Divinity Degree from St. Bede’s Online Theological College. In 2006, he was given the title of Doctor of Divinity honoris causa.

He was ordained a deacon in the Anglican Catholic Church of Canada in 1988, and a minister in the same jurisdiction on June 23, 1990. He was ordained a suffragan bishop of the same communion on January 27, 2007.

After being received into the full communion of the Catholic Church, Father Carl Reid was ordained a priest on January 26, 2013 of the Personal Ordinariate of the Chair of Saint Peter (USA).

Father Reid will be installed as Ordinary of the Personal Ordinariate of Our Lady of the Southern Cross on Tuesday August 27th at 7pm at the Cathedral of St Mary’s in the Archdiocese of Sydney by Archbishop Anthony Fisher, OP, Archbishop of Sydney.

Archbishop Fisher will be joined by Archbishop Augustine DiNoia, OP, Adjunct Secretary, Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, the Most Reverend Steven J Lopes, Ordinary of the Personal Ordinariate of the Chair of St Peter (USA) and Monsignor Keith Newton, Ordinary of the Personal Ordinariate of Our Lady of Walsingham (UK).

Confirmations And Ordination of First Torres Strait Island Priest in a joyous weekend in Cairns

The last weekend in May was a joyous occasion for the Ordinariate parish of St Claire, Cairns with Holy Cross Duaun Island. On Friday 24th May, Monsignor Harry Entwistle, the Administrator of the Personal Ordinariate of Our Lady of the Southern Cross confirmed five young people of the parish and on Sunday May 26th in St Francis Xavier Church, Manunda, Bishop Geoffrey Jarrett, Bishop Emeritus of Lismore, ordained Deacon Kopel Gibuma to the Catholic priesthood to minister in the Ordinariate OLSC. Fr Gibuma is the first Torres Strait Islander to be ordained a Catholic priest and he will minister in the parish of Cairns with Duaun Island, Torres Strait.

Both the Confirmation and Ordination services were ‘flavoured’ with Torres Strait island and missionary hymns while traditional dancers brought the deacon to church to be ordained, and entertained the guests during the following celebratory lunch.

In more ways than one this was a historic moment in the life of the Catholic Church in Australia, for which we thank God.

Traditional dancers brought the deacon to church to be ordained, and entertained the guests during the following celebratory lunch.

(Rear Left to Right) Fr Gordon Barnier, Fr Kopel Gibuma Bp Geoffrey Jarrett, Msgr Harry Entwistle with Altar Servers for the Parish at St Francis Xavier Church, Manunda

(Rear left to right) Reverend Monsignor Harry Entwistle, Reverend Kopel Gibuma and Fr Gordon Barnier with the 1 adult and four children receiving confirmation.

Fellow Torres Strait Islanders bring Deacon Kopel for his ordination and hand him over to the bishop

Anglicanorum Coetibus

BENEDICT XVI

APOSTOLIC CONSTITUTION ANGLICANORUM COETIBUS

PROVIDING FOR PERSONAL ORDINARIATES FOR ANGLICANS ENTERING INTO FULL COMMUNION WITH THE CATHOLIC CHURCH

 

In recent times the Holy Spirit has moved groups of Anglicans to petition repeatedly and insistently to be received into full Catholic communion individually as well as corporately. The Apostolic See has responded favourably to such petitions. Indeed, the successor of Peter, mandated by the Lord Jesus to guarantee the unity of the episcopate and to preside over and safeguard the universal communion of all the Churches,[1] could not fail to make available the means necessary to bring this holy desire to realization.

The Church, a people gathered into the unity of the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit,[2] was instituted by our Lord Jesus Christ, as “a sacrament – a sign and instrument, that is, of communion with God and of unity among all people.”[3] Every division among the baptized in Jesus Christ wounds that which the Church is and that for which the Church exists; in fact, “such division openly contradicts the will of Christ, scandalizes the world, and damages that most holy cause, the preaching the Gospel to every creature.”[4] Precisely for this reason, before shedding his blood for the salvation of the world, the Lord Jesus prayed to the Father for the unity of his disciples.[5]

It is the Holy Spirit, the principle of unity, which establishes the Church as a communion.[6] He is the principle of the unity of the faithful in the teaching of the Apostles, in the breaking of the bread and in prayer.[7] The Church, however, analogous to the mystery of the Incarnate Word, is not only an invisible spiritual communion, but is also visible;[8] in fact, “the society structured with hierarchical organs and the Mystical Body of Christ, the visible society and the spiritual community, the earthly Church and the Church endowed with heavenly riches, are not to be thought of as two realities. On the contrary, they form one complex reality formed from a two-fold element, human and divine.”[9] The communion of the baptized in the teaching of the Apostles and in the breaking of the eucharistic bread is visibly manifested in the bonds of the profession of the faith in its entirety, of the celebration of all of the sacraments instituted by Christ, and of the governance of the College of Bishops united with its head, the Roman Pontiff.[10]

This single Church of Christ, which we profess in the Creed as one, holy, catholic and apostolic “subsists in the Catholic Church, which is governed by the successor of Peter and by the Bishops in communion with him. Nevertheless, many elements of sanctification and of truth are found outside her visible confines. Since these are gifts properly belonging to the Church of Christ, they are forces impelling towards Catholic unity.”[11]

In the light of these ecclesiological principles, this Apostolic Constitution provides the general normative structure for regulating the institution and life of Personal Ordinariates for those Anglican faithful who desire to enter into the full communion of the Catholic Church in a corporate manner. This Constitution is completed by Complementary Norms issued by the Apostolic See.

I. § 1. Personal Ordinariates for Anglicans entering into full communion with the Catholic Church are erected by the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith within the confines of the territorial boundaries of a particular Conference of Bishops in consultation with that same Conference.

§ 2. Within the territory of a particular Conference of Bishops, one or more Ordinariates may be erected as needed.

§ 3. Each Ordinariate possesses public juridic personality by the law itself (ipso iure); it is juridically comparable to a diocese.[12]

§ 4. The Ordinariate is composed of lay faithful, clerics and members of Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life, originally belonging to the Anglican Communion and now in full communion with the Catholic Church, or those who receive the Sacraments of Initiation within the jurisdiction of the Ordinariate.

§ 5. The Catechism of the Catholic Church is the authoritative expression of the Catholic faith professed by members of the Ordinariate.

II. The Personal Ordinariate is governed according to the norms of universal law and the present Apostolic Constitution and is subject to the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, and the other Dicasteries of the Roman Curia in accordance with their competencies. It is also governed by the Complementary Norms as well as any other specific Norms given for each Ordinariate.

III. Without excluding liturgical celebrations according to the Roman Rite, the Ordinariate has the faculty to celebrate the Holy Eucharist and the other Sacraments, the Liturgy of the Hours and other liturgical celebrations according to the liturgical books proper to the Anglican tradition, which have been approved by the Holy See, so as to maintain the liturgical, spiritual and pastoral traditions of the Anglican Communion within the Catholic Church, as a precious gift nourishing the faith of the members of the Ordinariate and as a treasure to be shared.

IV. A Personal Ordinariate is entrusted to the pastoral care of an Ordinary appointed by the Roman Pontiff.

V. The power (potestas) of the Ordinary is:

  1. ordinary: connected by the law itself to the office entrusted to him by the Roman Pontiff, for both the internal forum and external forum;
  2. vicarious: exercised in the name of the Roman Pontiff;
  3. personal: exercised over all who belong to the Ordinariate;

This power is to be exercised jointly with that of the local Diocesan Bishop, in those cases provided for in the Complementary Norms.

VI. § 1. Those who ministered as Anglican deacons, priests, or bishops, and who fulfil the requisites established by canon law[13] and are not impeded by irregularities or other impediments[14] may be accepted by the Ordinary as candidates for Holy Orders in the Catholic Church. In the case of married ministers, the norms established in the Encyclical Letter of Pope Paul VI Sacerdotalis coelibatus, n. 42[15] and in the Statement In June[16] are to be observed. Unmarried ministers must submit to the norm of clerical celibacy of CIC can. 277, §1.

§ 2.The Ordinary, in full observance of the discipline of celibate clergy in the Latin Church, as a rule (pro regula) will admit only celibate men to the order of presbyter. He may also petition the Roman Pontiff, as a derogation from can. 277, §1, for the admission of married men to the order of presbyter on a case by case basis, according to objective criteria approved by the Holy See.

§ 3. Incardination of clerics will be regulated according to the norms of canon law.

§ 4. Priests incardinated into an Ordinariate, who constitute the presbyterate of the Ordinariate, are also to cultivate bonds of unity with the presbyterate of the Diocese in which they exercise their ministry. They should promote common pastoral and charitable initiatives and activities, which can be the object of agreements between the Ordinary and the local Diocesan Bishop.

§ 5. Candidates for Holy Orders in an Ordinariate should be prepared alongside other seminarians, especially in the areas of doctrinal and pastoral formation. In order to address the particular needs of seminarians of the Ordinariate and formation in Anglican patrimony, the Ordinary may also establish seminary programs or houses of formation which would relate to existing Catholic faculties of theology.

VII. The Ordinary, with the approval of the Holy See, can erect new Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life, with the right to call their members to Holy Orders, according to the norms of canon law. Institutes of Consecrated Life originating in the Anglican Communion and entering into full communion with the Catholic Church may also be placed under his jurisdiction by mutual consent.

VIII. § 1. The Ordinary, according to the norm of law, after having heard the opinion of the Diocesan Bishop of the place, may erect, with the consent of the Holy See, personal parishes for the faithful who belong to the Ordinariate.

§ 2. Pastors of the Ordinariate enjoy all the rights and are held to all the obligations established in the Code of Canon Law and, in cases established by the Complementary Norms, such rights and obligations are to be exercised in mutual pastoral assistance together with the pastors of the local Diocese where the personal parish of the Ordinariate has been established.

IX. Both the lay faithful as well as members of Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life, originally part of the Anglican Communion, who wish to enter the Personal Ordinariate, must manifest this desire in writing.

X. § 1. The Ordinary is aided in his governance by a Governing Council with its own statutes approved by the Ordinary and confirmed by the Holy See.[17]

§ 2. The Governing Council, presided over by the Ordinary, is composed of at least six priests. It exercises the functions specified in the Code of Canon Law for the Presbyteral Council and the College of Consultors, as well as those areas specified in the Complementary Norms.

§ 3. The Ordinary is to establish a Finance Council according to the norms established by the Code of Canon Law which will exercise the duties specified therein.[18]

§ 4. In order to provide for the consultation of the faithful, a Pastoral Council is to be constituted in the Ordinariate.[19]

XI. Every five years the Ordinary is required to come to Rome for an ad limina Apostolorum visit and present to the Roman Pontiff, through the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith and in consultation with the Congregation for Bishops and the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples, a report on the status of the Ordinariate.

XII. For judicial cases, the competent tribunal is that of the Diocese in which one of the parties is domiciled, unless the Ordinariate has constituted its own tribunal, in which case the tribunal of second instance is the one designated by the Ordinariate and approved by the Holy See. In both cases, the different titles of competence established by the Code of Canon Law are to be taken into account.[20]

XIII. The Decree establishing an Ordinariate will determine the location of the See and, if appropriate, the principal church.

We desire that our dispositions and norms be valid and effective now and in the future, notwithstanding, should it be necessary, the Apostolic Constitutions and ordinances issued by our predecessors, or any other prescriptions, even those requiring special mention or derogation.

Given in Rome, at St. Peter’s, on November 4, 2009, the Memorial of St. Charles Borromeo.
BENEDICTUS PP. XVI

[1] Cf. Second Vatican Council, Dogmatic Constitution Lumen gentium, 23; Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Letter Communionis notio, 12; 13.
[2] Cf. Dogmatic Constitution Lumen gentium, 4; Decree Unitatis redintegratio, 2.
[3] Dogmatic Constitution Lumen gentium, 1.
[4] Decree Unitatis redintegratio, 1.
[5] Cf. Jn 17:20-21; Decree Unitatis redintegratio, 2.
[6] Cf. Dogmatic Constitution Lumen gentium, 13.
[7] Cf. ibid; Acts 2:42.
[8] Cf. Dogmatic Constitution Lumen gentium, 8; Letter Communionis notio, 4.
[9] Dogmatic Constitution Lumen gentium, 8.
[10] Cf. CIC, can. 205; Dogmatic Constitution Lumen gentium, 13; 14; 21; 22; Decree Unitatis redintegratio, 2; 3; 4; 15; 20; Decree Christus Dominus, 4; Decree Ad gentes, 22.
[11] Dogmatic Constitution Lumen gentium, 8.
[12] Cf. John Paul II, Ap. Const. Spirituali militium curae, 21 April 1986, I § 1.
[13] Cf. CIC, cann. 1026-1032.
[14] Cf. CIC, cann. 1040-1049.
[15] Cf. AAS 59 (1967) 674.
[16] Cf. Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Statement of 1 April 1981, in Enchiridion Vaticanum 7, 1213.
[17] Cf. CIC, cann. 495-502.
[18] Cf. CIC, cann. 492-494.
[19] Cf. CIC, can. 511.

[20] Cf. CIC, cann. 1410-1414 and 1673.